Optimization of Phos-tag™ PAGE Condition

To obtain a high quality result using Phos-tag™ SDS-PAGE, optimization of the concentration of acrylamide and Phos-tag™ Acrylamide is essential. Optimize the concentration of acrylamide (①) first, followed by that of Phos-tag™ Acrylamide (②).

① Optimization of the concentration of acrylamide

First, identify the optimum concentration of acrylamide that allows migration of the target protein to the lowest end of the gel when conventional SDS-PAGE is used.
In Phos-tag™ SDS-PAGE, the migration speed is slower than in conventional SDS-PAGE (including non-phosphorylated proteins) and, therefore, the concentration of acrylamide should be examined (see the below figure). The migration speed decreases as the concentration of Phos-tag™ increases.

*: Run a gel electrophoresis until the BPB dye, which is contained in the sample buffer, reaches the bottom of the resolving gel. The position of BPB dye can be defined as an Rf value of 1.0. Under the above mentioned running condition, adjust the optimum concentration of acrylamide. When your target protein is observed as a migration band at an Rf value of 0.8 to 0.9 in conventional SDS-PAGE, the acrylamide concentration would be optimal for Phos-tag™ SDS-PAGE.

eg: 10% gel

Indication of optimum concentration

more than 60 kDa: 6%  less than 60 kDa:8%
<In case of high molecular weight proteins >
The gel strength can be increased by adding agarose to gels that contain less than 4% of acrylamide. There are data of separation of 350 kDa. (Refer to “Separation of Phos-tag™ Acrylamide” of 7. FAQ) Furthermore, the gel strength can also be enhanced by increasing the N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide content (eg: 5% acrylamide [24:1]).
② Optimization of the concentration of Phos-tag™ Acrylamide

First of all, start with a lower concentration of Phos-tag™ acrylamide at 20 μM, raise the concentration up to 100 µM, and select the concentration at which the difference in mobility between the phosphorylated form and nonphosphorylated form is large.

Supplier of information:

Then, optimize the concentration of Phos-tag™ Acrylamide. Please evaluate the optimum concentration in the order of lowest to highest.

eg: 20μM→50μM→100μM

【Cell Lysate】
In case there is a large variety of proteins in your sample, eg: cell lysates, the concentration of Phos-tag™ should be 5 to 25 μM. However, a higher concentration, eg: 100 μM, is recommended in case of a lower concentration of the target protein, eg: non-overexpression systems.

※The optimum condition depends on the protein. Please find the appropriate condition setting for each target protein.

(The information was provided by Yasunori Sugiyama Kagawa University)

Relation between Phos-tag™ concentration and resolution/mobility

In general, a higher concentration leads to higher separation capacity. (Compare the samples of 50 μM and 100 μM of Mn2+-Phos-tag™ in the left figure.) However, the higher concentration causes low velocity. It sometimes happens that the higher separation capacity is due to the lower Phos-tag™ concentration (Compare the samples of 50 μM and 150 μM of ovalbumin of the right figure.)

Relation between Phos-tag™ concentration and resolution/mobility