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The precise polymerization without using transition metal catalysts
RAFT polymerization

RAFT polymerization is one of the controlled living radical polymerization methods, which is also the effective polymerization method to synthesize polymers with a narrow range of the molecular weight distribution. This time, RAFT agents (chain transfer agents) for RAFT polymerization have been commercialized.
Please consider because the trithiocarbonate type of RAFT agents have been enhanced.


1. Features

The basic skeleton of RAFT agent
  • Capable of synthesizing polymers with a narrow range of the molecular weight distribution.
  • Not containing halogen and heavy metals in the system.
  • Possible to control the polymerization of a wide range of radical polymerization monomers by using a suitable RAFT agents (chain
  • transfer agents).
  • Because it is the less susceptible polymerization system by water or ionic substances, can be applied relatively easily to the
  • monomers with functional group or the aqueous polymerization.

2. Reaction mechanism

反応機構

3. Reaction examples

Reaction example (1)

反応例 (1)

Sudo, A., Hamaguchi, T., Aoyagi, N. and Endo, T. : Polym. Chem., 51, 318 (2013).


Reaction example (2)

反応例 (2)

Lefay, C. et al. : Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry., 49, 803 (2011).

4. Product List - RAFT agents

No. Product Name
[CAS No.]
Structural Formula Pkg. Size Wako
Cat. No.
Storage Condition
1 Bis(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)disulfide
[CAS No. 870532-86-8]
1 g 357-40901 Keep at
2-10°C.
5 g 353-40903
2 Bis{4-[ethyl-(2-hydroxyethyl)carbamoyl]
benzyl} Trithiocarbonate
[CAS No. 948877-09-6]
<for Organic Synthesis>
5 g 029-17961 Keep
at RT.
25 g 027-17962
3 4-[(2-Carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)
sulfanyl]-4-cyanopentanoic Acid
1 g 358-40931
5 g 354-40933
4 2-{[(2-Carboxyethyl)sulfanylthiocarbonyl]
sulfanyl}propanoic Acid
[CAS No. 870451-09-5]
<for Organic Synthesis>
1 g 037-24651
5 g 033-24653
5 2'-Cyanobutan-2'-yl 4-Chloro-3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-carbodithioate 1 g 354-40911
5 g 350-40913
6 4-Cyano-4-[(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)
sulfanyl]pentanoic Acid
[CAS No. 870196-80-8]
<for Organic Synthesis>
1 g 030-24641
5 g 036-24643
7 Cyanomethyl 3,5-Dimethylpyrazole-1-carbodithioate 1 g 351-40921
5 g 357-40923
8 Cyanomethyl N-Methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate
[CAS No. 76926-16-4]
<for Organic Synthesis>
1 g 035-24691
5 g 031-24693
9 S,S-Dibenzyl Trithiocarbonate
[CAS No. 26504-29-0]
<for Organic Synthesis>
1 g 047-33981 Keep at
2-10°C.
5 g 043-33983
10 2-[(Dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)sulfanyl]
propanoic Acid [CAS No. 558484-21-2]
1 g 351-40781 Keep at
2-10°C.
5 g 357-40783
11 Methyl 4-Cyano-4-[(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)
sulfanyl]pentanoate
[CAS No. 870532-87-9]
1 g 350-40751 Keep
at RT.
5 g 356-40753
RT: room temperature

5. Monomer Compatibility

In general, a high activity monomer indicates a compatibility with RAFT agents of dithioester type or trithiocarbonate type, on the other hand a low activity monomer with RAFT agents of dithiocarbamate type. RAFT agents can not control the precise polymerization of all types of monomers, therefore please select a suitable RAFT agent.


High activity monomer
(Styrene, Acrylate, Acrylamide, Methacrylate)
High activity monomer
Low activity monomer
(Vinyl ester, Vinyl amide)
Low activity monomer


5-1 Monomer Compatibility Table (1)

No. Styrene
Acrylate
Acrylamide
Methacrylate
Methacrylamide
Vinyl ester
Vinyl amide
4 A A A X X X X
6 B B B A A X X
8 C C C X X A A
9 B B B X X X X
10 A A A X X X X
11 B B B A A X X

* This represents the compatibility in the order of A> B> C, × represents the unsuitablity for use.



5-2 Monomer Compatibility Table (2)

No. Styrene
Acrylate
Acrylamide
Methacrylate
Methacrylamide
Vinyl ester
Vinyl amide
3 - - - - -
5 - - - - -
7 - - - -

* ○ represents the compatibility, "-" means no knowledge.

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