- World’s first mass production
- High ionic conductivity
- Performance report attached
- Useful for novel functional materials
2. Product List
A new solution to highly efficient solar cells. Li+@C60 provides long lasting separation
of electron charge.
Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of complete photovoltaic cells of Li+@C60-sulphonated porphyrin supramolecular
A photoelectrochemical solar cell composed of supramolecular nanoclusters of lithium encapsulated fullerene and zinc sulphonated
meso-tetraphenylporphyrin exhibits significant enhancement in the photoelectrochemical performance as compared with the reference system containing
only a single component.
- K. Ohkubo, Y. Kawashima and S. Fukuzumi, "Strong supramolecular binding of Li+@C60 with sulfonated
meso-tetraphenylporphyrins and long-lived photoinduced charge separation", Chem. Commun., 48, 4314-6 (2012)
- K. Ohkubo, Y. Kawashima, H. Sakai, T. Hasobe and S. Fukuzumi, "Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of composite photovoltaic cells of
Li+@C60–sulphonated porphyrin supramolecular nanoclusters ",
Chem. Commun., 49, 4474-6 (2013)
||Li+ ion is encapsulated inside C60 (Fullerene). Li+ moves in response to electric field outside.
Li+@C60 has a property like cation. It reacts with various anions and forms such salt as SbCl6- and PF6-.
A location of Li+is dependent on its counterpart(s), i.e. types and locations of the anions. This property can be utilized for sensors
- S. Aoyagi, E. Nishibori, H. Sawa, K. Sugimoto, et al., "A layered ionic crystal of polar Li@C60 superatoms",
Nature Chemistry, 2, 678-83 (2010).
- S. Aoyagi, Y. Sado, E. Nishibori, et al., "Rock-Salt-Type Crystal of Thermally Contracted C60 with Encapsulated Lithium Cation",
Angewandte Chemie International Edition,, 51,
||High ion mobility in organic slovent. Li+@C60-, electrically neutral,
||Because Li+@C60 (PF6)-) shows higher mobility inside organic solvent than
nBU4N+ (PF6)-, which is widely used as electrolyte, many electro-chemical applications of
Li+@C60 are envisaged.
In fact, Li+@C60-, radical anion, is selectively produced, when Li+@C60(PF6)-
- H. Ueno, K. Kokubo, Y. Nakamura, K. Ohikubo, et al., "Ionic conductivity of [Li+@C60](PF6-)
in organic solvents and its electrochemical reduction to Li+@C60·- ",
Chem. Commun., 49, 7376-8 (2013).
Photoinduced electron transfer
n-type semiconductor; molecular switch; ferroelectric sheet; artificial photosynthesis; super conductivity; ionic conductivity;
unique electrolyte; molecular memory
- S. Aoyagi et. al., A layered ionic crystal of polar Li+@C60 superatoms, Nature Chemistry, 2010, 2 (8), 678-83.
- K. Ohkubo, Y. Kawashima and S. Fukuzumi, Strong supramolecular binding of Li+@C60 with sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins and long-lived photoinduced charge separation, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48 (36), 4314-6.
- S. Aoyagi, et al., Rock-Salt-Type Crystal of Thermally Contracted C60 with Encapsulated Lithium Cation, Angewandte Chemie International Edition., 2012, 51 (14), 3377-81
- K. Kokubo, et al., Synthesis of a lithium-encapsulated fullerene and the effect of the internal lithium cation on its aggregation behavior, NANO RESEARCH, 2012, 5 (8), 558-64.
- K. Ohkubo et. al., Enhanced Photoinduced Electron-Transfer Reduction of Li+@C60 in Comparison with C60, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012, 116(36), 8942-8.
- K. Yokoo, K. Kawachi, H. Tobita, et. al., Preparation of endohedral fullerene containing lithium (Li@C60) and isolation as pure hexafluorophosphate salt ([Li+@C60][PF6⁻]), RSC Advances, 2012, 2, 10624-10631.
- Nathan L. Bill et al., Porphyrins Fused with Strongly Electron-Donating 1,3-Dithiol-2- ylidene Moieties: Redox Control by Metal Cation Complexation and Anion Binding, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 10852-62.
- T. Kamimura, K. Ohkubo, et al., Submillisecond-lived photoinduced charge separation in inclusion complexes composed of Li+@C60 and cyclic porphyrin dimers, Chemical Science, 2013, 4, 1451–1461.
- H. Ueno, K. Kokubo, et al., Synthesis of a new class of fullerene derivative Li+@C60O-(OH)7 as a "cation-encapsulated anion nanoparticle", Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 2317-21.
- H. Ueno, K. Kokubo, Y. Nakamura, K. Ohkubo, et al., Ionic conductivity of [Li+@C60](PF6–) in organic solvents and its electrochemical reduction to Li+@C60•–, Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 7376-8.
- Y. Kawashima et. al., Small Reorganization Energies of Photoinduced Electron Transfer between Spherical Fullerenes, J. Phys. Chem. A., 2013, 117, 6737-43.
- Y. Kawashima et al., Electron Transfer in Supramolecular Complex of Zinc Chlorin Carboxylate Anion with Li+@C60 Affording the Long-Lived Charge-Separated State, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2013, 117, 21166−77.
organic photovoltaic; organic solar cell; charge-storage device; solar energy; conversion
Biomedical & Pharmaceutical
- Y. Matsuo et al., Covalently Chemical Modification of Lithium Ion-Encapsulated Fullerene: Synthesis and Characterization of [Li+@PCBM]PF6⁻, Org. Lett., 2012, 14 (14), 3784–7.
- S. Fukuzumi, K. Ohkubo, et al., Ion-Controlled On-Off Switch of Electron Transfer from Tetrathiafulvalene Calixpyrroles to Li+@C60, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133 (40),15938-41.
- Y. Kawashima, K. Ohkubo and S. Fukuzumi, Enhanced Photoinduced Electron-Transfer Reduction of Li+@C60 in Comparison with C60, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012, 116 (36), 8942-8.
- K.Ohkubo et al., Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of composite photovoltaic cells of Li+@C60·- sulphonated porphyrin supramolecular nanoclusters , Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 4474-4476.
- S. Fukuzumi et al., Long-lived photoinduced charge separation for solar cell applications in supremolecular complexes of multi-metalloporphyrins and fullerenes, Dalton Trans., 2013, 42, 15846-58.
- T. Watanabe et al., Iridium and Platinum Complexes of Li+@C60, Organomtallics, 2014, 33 (3), 608-11.
- Y. Noguchi et al., First-Principles Investigation on Structural and Optical Properties of M+@C60 (Where M = H, Li, Na, and K), J. Phys. Chem. C, 2013, 117 (29), 15362–8.
- H. Kawakami, H. Okada and Y. Matsuo, Efficient Diels–Alder Addition of Cyclopentadiene to Lithium Ion Encapsulated Fullerene, Org. Lett., 2013, 15 (17), 4466–9.
- Y. Matsuo, et al., Anion Exchange of Li+@C60 Salt for Improved Solubility, Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures, 2014, 22 (1-3), 262-8.
⇒ in progress