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High Molecular Weight Cyclic α-1,4-glucan
Cycloamylose

Cycloamylose is a mixture of high molecular weight cylcic α-1,4-glucan produced by the action of 4-α-glucanotransferase on starch (1). Cycloamylose has a single helica V-amylose conformation, with an hydrophobic hannel-like cavity (2) and can form an inclusion complex with various guest molecules.

[Features]

  • Cycloamylose is easily degraded by α-amylases. Upon storage and handling of cycloamylose, cares should be taken to avoid the contamination of α-amylases either from human saliva or from microorganisms.
  • Cycloamylose powder can be stored at room temperature.
  • Cycloamylose can be dissolved in water to make up to 30 % (w/v) solution. It is highly recommended to use autoclaved distilled water, so that to avoid a contamination of α-amylases. The cycloamylose solution is recommended to store at -20°C.

  • Leaflet (1.6MB/2 p)

    [NOTE]

  • This reagent cannot be used for protein refolding due to Patent No. 3668091 (Japan) and US6852833 B1.

  • <Properties of Cycloamylose>

    1. High Solubility in Water
    Unlike linea amylose and starch, CA is highly soluble even in cold water. 0.3 grams or more of CA can be dissolved in 1 mL of hot water. It is highly recommended to use sterilized distilled water in order to avoid the dgradation of CA by α-amylases produced by contaminating microorganisms. The solution of CA does not form precipitate when stored at 4°C. Upon use and storage of the CA solution, please avoid the contamination of human saliva or microorganisms, since CA is easily degraded by α-amylases.

    Figure 1:
    Crystal structures of CA with DP of 26 (CD26) and α-cyclodextrin, which is cyclic α-1,4-glucan with DP of 6
    CD26 in crystal takes a structure in which two anti-parallel helices of α-1,4-glucan are connected (2) However, the structure of CD26 in solution is expected to be more flexible (3) In contrast, α-CD takes a doughnuts-like plane structure, both in crystal and in solution.

        

     

    Crystal structures of CD26 and CD6
    Figure 1


    2. Inclusion Complex Formation
    CA tends to form a helical structure and can incorporate various guest molecules into its hydrophobic channel-like cavity. Physicochemical and functional properties of guest molecules, including solubility, stability, hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and binding performancees, are influenced when they form inclusion complexes with CA.

    Figure 2:
    Inclusion complex of CD26 with undecanoic acid
    The crystal structure of CD26 complexed with iodine (4), undecanoic acid and dodecanol (5) had been determined. These guest molecules are included in the two hydrophobic helical cavities of CD26.

          
    Inclusion complex of CD26 with undecanoic acid
    Figure 2

    References:
    1. "The functions of 4-alpha-glucanotransferases and their use for the production of cyclic glucans.", T. Takaha and S. M. Smith, Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev., 16, 257-280 (1999).
    2. "V-amylose at atomic resolution: X-ray structure of a cycloamylose with 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose).", K. Gessler, I. Uson, T. Takaha, N. Krauss, S. M. Smith, S. Okada, G. M. Sheldrick, and W. Saenger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 4246-4251 (1999).
    3. "Thermus aquaticus ATCC 33923 amylomaltase gene cloning and expression and enzyme characterization: production of cycloamylose", Terada Y., Fujii K., Takaha T. and Okada S., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65(3), 910-915 (1999)
    4. S. Kitamura, et al., Carbohydr. Res., 304, 303-314 (1997)
    5. "X-ray structure of the cyclomaltohexaicosaose triiodide inclusion complex provides a model for amylose-iodine at atomic resolution", Nimz O., Gessler K., Uson I., Laettig S., Welfle H., Sheldrick GM, Saenger W., Carbohydr. Res., 338(9), 977-986 (2003)
    6. "Inclusion complexes of V-amylose with undecanoic acid and dodecanol at atomic resolution: X-ray structures with cycloamylose containing 26 D-glucoses (cyclohexaicosaose) as host", Nimz O., Gessler K., Uson I., Sheldrick GM, Saenger W., Carbohydr. Res., 339(8), 1427-1437 (2004)
    7. S. Kitamura, et al., J. Appl. Glycosci., 50, 321-325 (2003)
    8. S. Kitamura and Y. Terada, "Fiber Super-biomimetics", NTS, p141.
    9. C. Urakami, et al., PACIFICHEM 2005

    Product List
    Description Wako Catalog No. Package Size Storage Condition
    Cycloamylose
    [Ezaki Glico Co., Ltd.]
    302-32401
    0.2 g
    Keep at
    Room Temperature
    308-32403
    1 g
    306-32404
    5 g
    302-32406
    20 g

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